영어논문 또는 리서치에 유용한 문장들 #2 (Phrases)

Establishing the importance of the topic

  • One of the most significant current discussions in legal and moral philosophy is ….
  • It is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the ….
  • X is the leading cause of death in western industrialised countries.
  • X is a common disorder characterised by ….
  • Xs are one of the most widely used groups of antibacterial agents and ….
  • Xs are the most potent anti-inflammatory agents known.
  • X is an important component in the climate system, and plays a key role in Y.
  • In the new global economy, X has become a central issue for ….
  • In the history of development economics, X has been thought of as a key factor in ….
  • The issue of X has received considerable critical attention.
  • X is a major public health problem, and the cause of about 4% of the global burden of disease.
  • X is an increasingly important area in applied linguistics.
  • Central to the entire discipline of X is the concept of ….
  • X is at the heart of our understanding of ….

 

Establishing the importance of the topic (time frame given)

  • Recent developments in X have heightened the need for ….
  • In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in ….
  • In the arena of X , there has been a recent surge in interest and research.
  • Recent developments in the field of X have led to a renewed interest in ….
  • Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in ….
  • Since 1949 the submarine area off X has undergone intensive investigation ….
  • The past decade has seen the rapid development and diffusion of X in many ….
  • The past thirty years have seen increasingly rapid advances in the field of…..
  • Over the past century there has been a dramatic increase in ….
  • In the past two decades a number of researchers have sought to determine …..
  • X proved an important literary genre in the early Y community.
  • One of the most important events of the 1970s was ….
  • Traditionally, Xs have subscribed to the belief that ….
  • X was widespread in the Middle East in the 1920s.

 

Synopsis of Literature

  • Recently investigators have examined the effects of X on Y.
  • In the past two decades a number of researchers have sought to determine ….
  • Previous studies have reported ….
  • A considerable amount of literature has been published on X. These studies ….
  • Smith (1984: 217) shows how, in the past, research into X was mainly concerned with ….
  • Surveys such as that conducted by Smith (1988) showed that ….
  • The first serious discussions and analyses of X emerged during the 1970s with ….
  • Recent evidence suggests that ….
  • Several attempts have been made to ….
  • A number of researchers have reported ….
  • Xs were reported in the first models of Y (e.g., Smith, 1977; Smith, & Patel, 1977).
  • What we know about X is largely based upon empirical studies that investigate how ….
  • Studies of X show the importance of ….

 

Highlighting a problem in the field of study

  • However, these rapid changes are having a serious effect ….
  • However, a major problem with this kind of application is ….
  • Lack of X has existed as a health problem for many years.
  • Despite its safety and efficacy, X suffers from several major drawbacks:
  • However, research has consistently shown that first year students have not attained an adequate understanding of ….There is increasing concern that some Xs are being disadvantaged ….
  • Despite its long clinical success, X has a number of problems in use.
  • Questions have been raised about the safety of prolonged use of ….

 

Highlighting a controversy in the field of study

  • To date there has been little agreement on what …
  • More recently, literature has emerged that offers contradictory findings about ….
  • One observer has already drawn attention to the paradox in ….
  • In many Xs a debate is taking place between Ys and Zs concerning ….
  • The controversy about scientific evidence for X has raged unabated for over a century.
  • Debate continues about the best strategies for the management of ….
  • This concept has recently been challenged by …. studies demonstrating ….

 

Highlighting a knowledge gap in the field of study

  • So far, however, there has been little discussion about ….
  • Little is known about X and it is not clear what factors ….
  • However, far too little attention has been paid to ….
  • In addition, no research has been found that surveyed ….
  • So far this method has only been applied to ….
  • This indicates a need to understand the various perceptions of poverty that exist among …..
  • However, the evidence for this relationship is inconclusive ….
  • What is not yet clear is the impact of X on ….
  • The neurobiological basis of this X is poorly understood.
  • However, much uncertainty still exists about the relation between ….
  • Until recently, there has been no reliable evidence that ….
  • However, there have been no controlled studies which compare differences in ….
  • Several studies have produced estimates of X (Smith, 2002; Jones, 2003), but there is still insufficient data for ….
  • No previous study has investigated X
  • Although extensive research has been carried out on …, no single study exists which ….

 

Highlighting inadequacies of previous studies

  • Most studies in the field of X have only focused on ….
  • Most studies in X have only been carried out in a small number of areas.
  • The generalisability of much published research on this issue is problematic.
  • The experimental data are rather controversial, and there is no general agreement about ….
  • Such expositions are unsatisfactory because they ….
  • However, few writers have been able to draw on any structured research into the opinions and attitudes of …..
  • The research to date has tended to focus on X rather than Y.
  • The existing accounts fail to resolve the contradiction between X and Y.
  • Researchers have not treated X in much detail.
  • Previous studies of X have not dealt with ….
  • Half of the studies evaluated failed to specify whether ….
  • However, much of the research up to now has been descriptive in nature ….
  • Although extensive research has been carried out on X, no single study exists which adequately covers ….
  • However, these results were based upon data from over 30 years ago and it is unclear if these differences still persist.
  • X’s analysis does not take account of …. nor does he examine ….

 

Stating the purpose

  • Part of the aim of this project is to develop software that is compatible with X operating system.
  • The main purpose of this study is to develop an understanding of ….
  • There are two primary aims of this study: 1. To investigate …. 2. To ascertain ….
  • The aim of this research project has therefore been to try and establish what ….
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the differences between …..
  • The main aim of this investigation is to assess the doses and risks associated with ….
  • This thesis intends to determine the extent to which …. and whether ….
  • This thesis will examine the way in which the ….
  • This research examines the emerging role of X in the context of ….
  • This dissertation seeks to explain the development of ….
  • This case study seeks to examine the changing nature of …..
  • Drawing upon two stands of research into X, this study attempts to ….
  • The aim of this study is to shine new light on these debates through an examination of ….
  • The major objective of this study was to investigate …..
  • One purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which these factors were ….
  • The objectives of this research are to determine ….
  • This study therefore set out to assess the effect of management by …., and the effect of ….
  • This study systematically reviews the data for…., aiming to provide clarity surrounding the role of …..

 

Research questions or hypotheses

  • The central question in this dissertation asks how ….
  • In particular, this dissertation will examine six main research questions:
  • The hypothesis that will be tested is that ….
  • The key research question of this study was thus whether or not ….
  • This study aimed to address the following research questions:
  • Another question is whether ….

 

Synopsis of the method/sources of data

  • This dissertation follows a case-study design, with in-depth analysis of ….
  • This study was exploratory and interpretative in nature.
  • The approach to empirical research adopted for this study was one of a qualitative, semi-structured interview methodology.
  • By employing qualitative modes of enquiry, I attempt to illuminate the ….
  • This work takes the form of a case-study of the ….
  • Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in this investigation.
  • Qualitative and quantitative research designs were adopted to provide both descriptive, interpretive and empirical data.
  • A holistic approach is utilised, integrating literary, numanistic and archaeological material to establish ….
  • The research data in this thesis is drawn from four main sources: ….
  • The study was conducted in the form of a survey, with data being gathered via ….
  • Five works will be examined, all of which ….

 

Indicating limitations

  • Due to practical constraints, this paper cannot provide a comprehensive review of ….
  • It is beyond the scope of this study to examine the ….
  • The reader should bear in mind that the study is based on ….
  • Another potential problem is that the scope of my thesis may be too broad.
  • A full discussion of X lies beyond the scope of this study.

 

Giving reasons for personal Interest

  • My main reason for choosing this topic is personal interest.
  • I became interested in Xs after reading many of those articles in the national press which quoted evidence, often anecdotal, of ….
  • This project was conceived during my time working for X. As a medical advisor I witnessed ….
  • sometimes found in the humanities, and social science disciplines

 

Outlining the structure

  • The overall structure of the study takes the form of six chapters, including this introductory chapter.
  • My thesis is composed of four themed chapters.
  • Chapter Two begins by laying out the theoretical dimensions of the research, and looks at how ….
  • The third chapter is concerned with the methodology used for this study.
  • The fourth section presents the findings of the research, focusing on the three key themes that have been identified in analysis.
  • Chapter 6 analyses the results of interviews and focus group discussions undertaken during the course of this research, ….
  • The final chapter draws upon the entire thesis, tying up the various theoretical and empirical strands in order to ….
  • Finally, the conclusion gives a brief summary and critique of the findings,
  • …. and includes a discussion of the implication of the findings to future research into this area.
  • …. Finally, areas for further research are identified.

 

Explaining key terms

  • While a variety of definitions of the term X have been suggested, this dissertation will use the definition first suggested by Smith (1968) who saw it as ….
  • Throughout this paper the term X will refer to/will be used to refer to ….
  • In this dissertation the acronym/abbreviation XYZ will be used.
  • According to …. (2000) X can be defined as follows; ” X is one of …. “
  • The term X is a relatively new name for ….., commonly referred to as ….
  • This definition is close to that of Smith (2009) who defined X as ….

 

무단복제 금지

 

영어 에세이, 논문, SOP, 이력서, Cover Letter 첨삭전문 에세이리뷰

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